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II Corps


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IICorps.jpg

 

NAME:

II Corps / Second Corps / 2nd Corps / II Army Corps

 

NICKNAME:

None.

 

BATTLE HONORS:

 

World War I

Somme Offensive

 

World War II

Algeria-French Morocco

Tunisia

Sicily

Naples-Foggia

Rome-Arno

North Apennines

Po Valley

 

ACTIVATED:

Feb 1918

Aug 1, 1940

 

DEACTIVATED:

1919

June 5, 1970

 

HISTORY:

 

The II Corps of World War I and later periods is dramatically different and not from the same lineage as the II Corps of the American Civil War. This section deals only with the more modern II Corps, which was activated in World War I.

 

World War I

 

The II Corps was organized in February 1918 at Montreuil, France.

 

During World War I, II Corps included both the 27th and the 30th Infantry Divisions.

 

In September 1918, II Corps took part in the Somme Offensive. Rawlinson's British Fourth Army, of which the American II Corps formed a part, was assigned the task of overtaking German positions in the assigned zones of the Hindenburg Line. On the night of September 23/24, the American 30th Division of the II Corps entered that part of the line situated just west of Bellicourt. and took over a front of some 3.800 yards, about 1,000 yards west of the Hindenburg Line, where the canal was mostly underground. On the following night, the American 27th Division entered the line north of our 30th Division, and took over a front of about 4.500 yards. Their assigned objectives were: for the 30th Division, Bellicourt; for the 27th. Bony. Both Bellicourt and Bony were strongly fortified.

 

The 30th Division had taken over a sector with a favorable line of departure for the main attack on September 29. Its operations on September 27 and 28 were merely to rectify and strengthen its lines. The front taken over by the 27th Division, however, was distinctly unfavorable for launching an attack. It was dominated by a German position which ran along the crest of an elevation confronting it. Before the 27th Division could carry out its orders, it had first to drive the enemy from this commanding position. It attacked on September 27 and again on September 28: but desperate German resistance prevented it from securing the high ground, although some of its elements did succeed in occupying positions on the heights. Thus. on the eve of the main battle, the 27th Division still had an unfavorable line of departure, to withdraw its advanced elements would have been a complicated task: it was therefore decided not to change the barrage line for the main assault on September 29, but to start the attack of the 27th Division an hour before Zero, in the hope that the division could force its way forward to the barrage line. The situation of this division was indeed a most difficult one.

 

At 5:50 a. m., on September 29, Rawlinson's Army took up the advance on a front of twelve miles. Its right corps quickly crossed the St-Quentin Canal, and by evening had gained commanding ground well to the east. In the center, the American 30th Division rapidly penetrated the German defenses and captured Bellicourt and Nauroy. On its left, the 27th Division had not gained the designated line of departure at Zero hour. Some of its units had advanced, but others had not. The artillery barrage was in place more than a thousand yards ahead of the infantry: and in the intervening space, German machine guns and artillery wrought havoc among the advancing waves of American infantry. On the front of the 27th Division, only one of the thirty-nine Allied tanks engaged survived to cross the Bellicourt Tunnel. Nevertheless, our troops fought their way forward, and by noon on September 29 had reached the German positions on the crest. Small groups broke through the defenses of the Hindenburg Line and continued to advance east of Bony to the outskirts of Le Catelet and of Gouy. In conjunction with the Australians. the American II Corps had taken all of the dominating crest by the evening of September 29. During the night of September 30 - October 1. the American II Corps was withdrawn from the line for a short rest. By October 5, the British offensive on the Somme front had broken through the Hindenburg Line into open country to the east.

 

As a historical note, the 27th and 30th divisions of the II Corps were the only units of the AEF to fight exclusively under foreign command for their entire service in France. Composed of National Guardsment from New York and the southern states of Tennessee, North and South Carolina the 27th and 30th Divisions fought with distinction in Flander and the Somme sector while suffering nearly 16,000 killed and wounded.

 

 

World War II

 

The II Corps was activated on August 1, 1940. At that time, its headquarters was located at Fort Jay, New York. It remained there for two years until July 1942, when it embarked for Salisbury, Wiltshirt in England.

 

The US II Corps was a corps of the United States Army and the first American formation of any size to see combat in Europe or Africa during World War II.

 

It came to prominence in the Battle of Kasserine Pass when Field Marshal Erwin Rommel defeated the formation. However, after a change of command, it recovered its cohesion and fought well for the rest of the campaign. It held the southern flank of British 1st Army during the destruction of Axis forces in Africa.

 

In July 1943, it landed in Sicily as part of Operation Husky under command of the U.S. 7th Army, playing a key part in the liberation of the western part of the island. The corps consisted of the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division, U.S. 9th Infantry Division, and U.S. 45th Infantry Division, all under the command of Lieutenant-General Omar Nelson Bradley.

 

A further amphibious operation followed at Salerno that included the U.S. 36th Infantry Division and 45th Infantry Division. During the Spring offense in May 1944, the II Corps consisted of the US 85th and 88th Infantry Divisions. For the assault of the GOTHIC Line, the II Corps consisted of the US 34th, 88th and 91st Infantry Divisions.

 

After the Anzio landings, Major General Geoffrey Keyes was assigned commander of the II Corps. The II Corps fought from Cassino up the western side of Italy, ending up on the right flank of US Fifth Army in May 1945.

 

 

Divisional history from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._II_Corps

http://www.vetshome.com/military_corps_patches_history_1.htm

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/stquent.htm

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/ii_selle.htm

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  • 3 months later...
  • 1 year later...

An interesting variation. Possibly immediate pre-WWII.

 

-Ski

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In Memory Of......
Pte Harold Griffiths, 1805, 1/6th Manchester Regt, KIA June 4th, 1915 in Gallipoli
Cpl Isaac Judges, 40494, 6th East Yorkshire Regt, KIA October 3rd, 1917 in Ypres
May they rest in peace.....

MSgt - USAF Retired

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  • 6 months later...

II Corps with Wide Blue Border

 

post-4247-1237937082.jpg

~Sean

WANTED: Philippine Department & Division patch variations, uniforms, & other items.
~In honor of Private Placido Conejos, 14th Engineer Regt. (Philippine Scouts). KIA on Bataan, 02/13/1942

My links: Lolo's (Grandfather's) WWII Service | My Mini-Museum of Sea Lions and Carabaos ASMIC Newsletter Editor (4653) | PSHS Nat. Secretary & Webmaster

 

 

 

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Back

 

post-4247-1237937151.jpg

~Sean

WANTED: Philippine Department & Division patch variations, uniforms, & other items.
~In honor of Private Placido Conejos, 14th Engineer Regt. (Philippine Scouts). KIA on Bataan, 02/13/1942

My links: Lolo's (Grandfather's) WWII Service | My Mini-Museum of Sea Lions and Carabaos ASMIC Newsletter Editor (4653) | PSHS Nat. Secretary & Webmaster

 

 

 

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  • 2 years later...
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  • 8 months later...

Some pre-war to early WWII examples.

 

Top to bottom, left to right:

On blue felt

on blue twill

on OD wool

blue felt attached to orange or yellow felt on top of white felt (Signal Corps)

OD border US made with machine stitched orange border

US made with embroidered edge (hard to tell if it was supposed to be yellow or orange)

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Follow me on Facebook @zemkecollectables

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  • 4 years later...

A subdued version, why subdued a late 60s early 70s U.S.Made Subdued Merrowed Edge? For unlike the majority of Administrative Corps that were Inactivated during early 1968, II Corps remained active a little longer, Inactivated 5 June 1970.

 

post-34986-0-99275700-1576633498.jpg

 

 

 

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