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WWII USMC Artillery EE-8 Field Phone-TD-1 Chest Set-R-22 Headset


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I have not found a lot of information on this and thought I would post some photos of the equipment that may be of interest, and appeal to the USMF community for corrections and/or additional information.  I would to hear from anyone who can add to my understanding of this subject.  


Marine Corps artillery units in WWII used EE-8 series field phones at Fire Direction Centers and battery positions.  These phones were generally paired with the TD-1 Chest Set (T-26 Army) fitted with R-22 or R-22 A Headsets.  A recorder (making firing calculations) at the FDC for each battery would be wearing one, as would the section chief at each gun position, as would at least one man on communications with the executive officer at the command post for each battery, as would the switchboard operator (no phone).   Fire missions would come into the FDC, be assigned to the batteries, calculations made by the recorders, and instructions relayed to the battery CP where they went through the exec. and were repeated to the guns.  The exec. would give the firing orders, and then report rounds complete back to the FDC.   I believe, though am not certain, that each of these chest sets was plugged into an EE-8 and a switchboard was located at the FDC.   Anyone who knows different please correct me.




The above picture below is of the FDC of 4th 155mm Howitzer Battalion, 1st Provisional Field Artillery Group on Iwo Jima.  It was located in a burned out Japanese reinforced concrete position about 100 yards from the gun positions.  The three recorders are seated at the back making calculations with graphical firing tables (only two of these men visible). What two of the other three men are up to I don't exactly know but the third is at the plotting table figuring the angles and firing distances for the recorders to then make their calculations.  The three EE-8 phones strapped to the post are operating on common battery (6-volt wet cell in the wood chest bottom left).  Tracing the cords, they do not appear to be in use with chest sets and may be linked to the battery forward observers out in the field.    Another photo shows that the headset worn second from right is plugged into an EE-8 at his feet.  This man is a captain and I assume running the FDC but I do not know.  I imagine there is a phone on the ground somewhere near each chest set wearing recorder at the back. 




This is an EE-8 A Field phone with a TD-1 (T-26) Chest Set with R-22 A Headset.  The plug is a PL-58.  The cords are original early brown ones.  If anyone knows rough dates of transition from cloth insulted to brown rubber, to black please share.  I imagine there was overlap.



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At left is an earlier R-22 Headset with earlier TD-1 chest set.  At right is an R-22 A headset with TD-1 chest set.  Note the earlier at left does not have the white paint highlighting the lettering on the switch cover.

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Differences in the headsets.  Top: R-22 A left, R-22 right.  Note the wire headframe for the R-22 is a regular Western Electric civilian type of the pre-war era, and I believe would have had a black pad originally, similar to the white one on the R-22 A.   The headframe on the R-22 A I have only seen on military sets. 




R-22 Left, R-22 A Right



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