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Weekly World War Wing #5 (Dunham edition)


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Chris Norman has been doing a great job putting up new threads about various interesting WWI wings. I wanted to expand a little bit on his great efforts and start a similar thread on wings and badges made by Dan S Dunham of San Antonio. There are some very interesting aspects of Dunham's wings that maybe not everyone is aware of so I thought it would be fun to share. There is even some "history" about these wings and perhaps the Granddaddy of WWI wing collectors, Duncan Campbell. I have borrowed a lot of images off the internet and our forum and I hope no one gets angry about the fair use of these pictures. Where possible, I will try to give credit for the images, but my intent is to serve up examples and apologize in advance.

 

WWI wings can be divided into two broad categories, bullion wings and silver wings. The silver wings can be divided into (again) two very broad categories, multi-piece wings (think of the classic Dallas wings) that are usually (but not always) mounted on a backing covered in a dark blue/black fabric, and 1 piece wings (akin to what we see later) that are usually (but not always) lacking a mounting and were die struck as a single unit. While I suspect that there was a fair amount of overlap, I have always felt that the bullion wings probably preceded the 3-piece wings, which probably preceded the 1 piece wings. It also seems that bullion wings were worn both Stateside and Overseas, while the metal wings were probably only worn Stateside and not Overseas. Of course, there all sorts of exceptions, etc. But those seem like generally accurate "rules"

 

The metal wings were made by more than a few insignia manufacturers and include companies like Tifffany, Johnson, W. Link, BB&B, Eisentadt, Homorichus, Linz, Meyer, and Robbins, to name just a few. Most of these companies made maybe 1 or 2 different variations or the pilot wing, perhaps modifying, adding or removing a shield/gothic O or one side of the wings to make some additional ratings (MA, JRMA, Observer, etc). Some of these wings are rarer than others, but I would say that the NS Meyers, W. Link, Robbins, BB&B, Eisenstadt, and Homorichus are probably more common (such at it is) than some of the others, which may only exist as one or two examples (for example, T H Alan). Not only are these metal wings beautiful art forms, they are much more durable than bullion wings, and are probably one of the highest sought after wings by many collectors.

 

That leads me to Don S Dunham and his wings. There is a very nice thread that gives some more important information here. http://www.usmilitariaforum.com/forums/index.php?/topic/215174-interesting-ebay-auction/

 

Located in San Antonio, Dunham is perhaps one of the rarer and scarcer manufacturers of wings BUT they also seem to have had at least 5 (and maybe 6) different unique patterns of wing designs that show up. 3 variations of the 3 piece Dallas wings, and 2 (maybe 3) variations of the one piece metal wings. More over, these different wing patterns were used to make a variety of the other ratings, including the military aviator and Jr/Reserve aviator wings, observer wings, balloon pilot wings, balloon observer wings, bombing aviator wings, and the fighting observer wings. While each individual rating is relatively rare if not down right "one of a kind" there is a fair amount of variations that went into the Dunham wings, which seems to dwarf the variations used by the other companies. Mr Dunham must have liked making wings!

 

Making the story even more interesting some (if not all) of Dunham's dies were purchased by Duncan Campbell. Apparently, he used these dies to make some example wings for some of his friends and colleagues. One story goes that one of the dies was used to make only a few examples before a manufacturing accident broke off one of the wings. They managed to "repair" the die and produce a few more "reproductions" but this left an obvious die flaw on the wing that shows up in almost all the reproduction wings made to date. The dies also showed up in an Ebay auction a few years ago (see thread above). I am not sure where/if all the Dunham dies ended up and in who's collection, but at least some of them are out there still.

 

First up are 2 of the "Dallas wing" style patterns made by Dunham. Both are 3 pieces attached to a plate. There are a number of differences, including the feathering pattern, size, and shield.

 

 

 

 

 

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These two patterns of feathers also show up as various different ratings.

 

For example a Dunham pattern 1 as an observer/JrRMA and the very rare flighting observer wing.

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A pattern 1 Balloon pilot wing and a photo of what I believe is a Dunham Pattern 1 Bombing Aviator wing.

 

I can't say for sure, but it seems likely to me that the Pattern 1 wings are a bit more common than the pattern 2 wings.

 

Next, I'll talk about the third pattern of "Dallas style wings"

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As I said, a few years ago, the Pattern 2 and what I call the pattern 3 dies showed up. Apparently they had come out of Duncan Campbell's estate.

 

There had been some discussion between a number of collectors whether or not the pattern 3 wings were actually ever made. Certainly some of the pattern 2 wings were made by Duncan. But to my knowledge there never seemed to have been any pattern 3 pilot wings made. This is false, but I'll get to it in a minute.

 

The pattern 2 wings showed up in the Fladerman auction a few years ago and were pulled when the auction house was informed that these were reproductions made by Duncan.

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This was one of the Dunham RMA badges that was sold from Duncan Campbell's auction. I don't recall if it was good (vintage to 1918) or one that he had made using the dies.

 

But what is interesting is that there is a Balloon badge and observer badge that have been discussed before (here) http://www.usmilitariaforum.com/forums/index.php?/topic/257419-lieutenant-frederick-fuller-spherical-balloon-pilot/?hl=%2Bdunham+%2Bballoon&do=findComment&comment=2063988

 

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That covers the 3 "Dallas-style" wings made and sold by Dunham. There are a few things that are important to know about these wings, as there are a fair number of fakes, reproductions and museum quality examples out there.

 

Next are the 2-3 one piece wings made by Dunham.

 

There are at least 2 obvious patterns made by Dunham as one piece wings, and perhaps a third. These are relatively delicate and smallish wings. Pattern 4 is usually found attached to a backing plate (sometimes with a gold-colored staple and sometimes with a couple of screws. Pattern 4A looks to have had the wing cut into 3 parts. Pattern 5 is usually seen just as a one-piece wing without any backing. These wings are very similar but have subtle differences.

 

They are also faked a great deal.

 

It was apparently the dies for Pattern 4 that were damaged by Duncan. The dies were rewired and all subsequent iterations that were made have the die flaw where it was broken. Also, the US in the real ones is different than the fake ones.

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As I said, there are a lot of fakes of the pattern 4 and 5 wings. Here is one Pattern 5 that you see periodically showing up on ebay (and I think it was originally sold by Charles Snyder).

 

I don't know if these wings were made off the original dies, like the pattern 4 fakes, though you do see some of these wings showing up as castings made and sold by HeWhoShallNotBeNamed.

 

I have seen some very good examples that look to be die struck and with fantasy hallmarks. So beware.

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and some more

 

Feel free to discuss or add other photos examples.

 

Thanks to Chris for inspiring this post (and providing some very important information)

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Wow! Thanks for the detailed information! Could you specifically point out the die flaw? This is really great information for those of us who would not have the opportunity to examine these makers in hand.

 

Are there specific clues as to determine those made by Duncan Campbell? I have read that he intentionally did not finish the gaps in the feathers to distinguish his strikes from originals. Is that true?

 

Are the chances of poor normal saps coming across a Dunham wing about zero at the shows?

and some more

 

Feel free to discuss or add other photos examples.

 

Thanks to Chris for inspiring this post (and providing some very important information)

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I want to double the Wow! So: Wow! Wow!

 

I've been out of town and off the web and came back to this wonderful post. What a tremendous wealth of information.

 

I probably won't have time to post lengthier comments until tomorrow but I did want to thank Patrick for this stellar effort and for for giving me a week break from WWWOW posts.

 

Chris

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All,

 

There is a lot of really great information here!

 

I have been studying Dan Dunham (the man) and his wings for about 15 years now and have observed several things; some fact-based and observable, and some, unfortunately, a bit controversial. There is a lot of information to unpack so I'll try to keep this, and the following posts high level and will make an attempt to "bucket" the information into digestible chunks.

 

Wings

 

To begin with, we'll examine Dunham's various wing designs. To date, through; viewing period photographs, observing surviving examples, and corresponding with other collectors, three distinct Dan Dunham wing designs can be identified. To avoid confusion, this post will not number the variations, instead preferring use of one word description-labels. Each wing type will be followed by collector notes where speculation will be labeled.

 

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Large

Large

 

The Large type wing is probably the most commonly encountered by collectors. Although no Dunham wing can be properly called "common," the body of evidence appears to show Dunham incorporated this design in more wings than any other. This wing, as it is relatively large when compared to the others, is most likely Dunham's attempt to market a badge that could compete with the very popular so-called "Dallas" three-piece wings. Dunham Reserve Military Aviator (RMA) badges incorporating the large wing pattern are dimensionally and proportionally very similar to the various "Dallas" wings. That this pattern surfaces more often than the others is likely a strong indicator that Dunham had indeed devised a successful "Dallas" wing competitor.

 

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De Luxe

De Luxe

 

The next wing type is the "Deluxe" pattern. As sterling silver wing badges became more and more fantastic (in both design and size) there was apparent downward pressure from the "Brass" to get the badges back in "regulation." Dunham's answer to this pressure appears to have been the De Luxe badges which he marketed as "The only regulation size [3-inch] sterling silver three piece insignia..." The advertisements (post #1 above) for De Luxe insignia and Fighting Observer begin in the latter half of 1918--both RMA and Fighting Observer use this smaller-sized wing. This is likely a good indication that the De Luxe pattern followed the Large pattern as demands of the market shifted. At the very least, Dunham wanted to advertise the fact he was selling a "regulation size" three piece wing. There is a famous photograph of Colonel Henry Conger Pratt, Commander of Kelly Field, wearing one of Dunham's De Luxe badges.

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Long

Long

 

Of the three wing variations, the least is known about the long variant. Duncan Campbell evidently acquired the dies for the long wing style simultaneously with the large wing style. Of all the known Dunham wing types, the long type shows up the least. In 15 years I have only cataloged three examples of the long wing; two Observer (O-Type) half wings and one Aeronaut. Noteworthy is the fact that both examples of long wing Observer badges cataloged incorporate the US within the "O." The US within the O of Observer wings was announced by the war department after the war in December 1918. I speculate (take with a grain of salt) that the long wing was Dunham's attempt to design and market a wing that stylistically approximated the requirements of the February 1919 changes (specifically; a longer straighter wing with a distinct shoulder).

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Shields

 

To date, five distinct Dan Dunham shields have surfaced; one large, three De Luxe, and one Fighting Observer:

 

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Large

Large

 

The large type shield is the type normally associated with Dunham's RMA badges. Similar to the large type wing, the relative dimensions of the large type shield strongly suggest that this variation was Dunham's attempt to market a badge to compete with the very popular so-called "Dallas" type wings. Until Bob Schwartz' recent acquisition of a Junior Military Aviator/1st Type Observer half-wing (Post #2 above), I had only cataloged the large type wings and shield utilized in RMA badges.

 

De Luxe

 

To date, three distinct die-struck shields have emerged for De Luxe RMA badges. All three of the following shields have similar relative dimensions:

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De Luxe [A]

De Luxe [A]. The De Luxe [A] type shield is characterized by two rows of stars in the chief of the shield. The rows are split into an upper row of seven stars and lower row of six stars. The upper low in this shield has a slightly higher middle star. The points on the top of the star are moderately pronounced.

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De Luxe

De Luxe . Another type shield, the De Luxe , is characterized by three rows of stars in the chief; one row of one star, and two rows of six. unique to this shield variant, the delimiting line between the chief and the field is a row of small dots. Similar to the previous shield, the De Luxe variant has moderate points at the top of the chief.

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De Luxe [C]

De Luxe [C]. The last observed type, De Luxe [C] again exhibits two rows of stars; an upper row of seven and a lower row of six. The top row in the De Luxe [C] variant is configured in two distinct arcs conformal to the scallops at the top of the chief. Unique to this variant are the pronounced points to top of the shield.

Fighting Observer. In a category by itself is the exceedingly rare Fighting Observer. All observed examples of the Dunham Fighting Observer shield are gold, and all observed Fighting Observer badges utilize the De Luxe type wing:

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Fighting Observer

 

 

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2nd Type Observer

 

Two types of exceptionally rare Dan Dunham produced "Gothic O" 2nd Type Observer badges have been surfaced to date:

 

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Etruscan

Etruscan. The Etruscan, or "false embroidery" style O has only been observed paired with a large-type wing. No examples of Dan Dunham manufactured 2nd Type Observer wing has yet surfaced utilizing the De Luxe-type wing.

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Gothic

Gothic. The Gothic wing has only been cataloged with the long-type wing. Additionally the Gothic pattern has also universally been paired with a central US (as per the Feb 1919 regulations). The inclusion of the US suggests this pattern is likely the last pattern observer manufactured by Dunham, issued around the time the Adams-design wings proliferated.

Aeronaut

 

Similar to 2nd Type Observer badges, only two types of full size Dan Dunham manufactured Aeronaut badges have surfaced (there is a smaller sized Dan Dunham sweetheart Aeronaut badge known but it is not addressed in this discussion):

 

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Large

Large. The large Aeronaut balloon and basket has only been observed mated to the large-type wings. No examples of De Luxe type Aeronaut badges have yet surfaced. Although Dan Dunham Aeronaut badges are exceedingly rare, most encountered examples are of the large type.

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Small

Small. Only one example of an Aeronaut badge with the small balloon and basket has surfaced--the Frederick Fuller badge (post #6). The Fuller Aeronaut badge is paired with long-type wings. It is possible that the Fuller Aeronaut badge was a bespoke purchase for Fuller and like the long-wing variant observer badges, may be associated with the time period after the Adams-designed wings were announced.

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Single Piece Wing

 

The wing Patrick refers to as type 4 is a single piece wing that used a unique, unified (wing-shield-wing) die. I speculate this wing was another attempt by Dan Dunham to approximate the requirements of the Adams-designed wings (perhaps before actually having seen illustrations) factors arguing for this are; 1) regulation size (3 inch), and 2) distinct shoulders in the wings. I fully admit that this is just a theory and the superficial design similarities with the Adams designs may be entirely coincidental.

 

Dan Dunham

 

Dan Dunham himself is an interesting personage. The man seems to have been very active in promoting commerce in San Antonio. Dunham was also a prominent local "booster," organizing war-bond drives and publicly challenging other merchants in San Antonio to join his efforts to support the War. Unfortunately, Dunham also seems to have been caught up in the anti-German hysteria sweeping much of the nation during the wartime years and to have displayed a propensity for the type of racial animus that produced the Houston riots of 1917. To be certain he was a man of his era.

 

Reference Books

 

As Patrick noted above, Duncan Campbell along with Norm Flayderman and a Florida die-maker (still alive so I won't name him) produced re-strikes for Campbell, Flayderman, and a few of those two gentlemen's close friends. It is important to note that neither of those two named gentlemen ever intended to deceive or profit from the production of these badges. Unfortunately as is often the case, the badges they created outlived them both and eventually made their way out into the "wild." Worse still, these re-strikes were actually illustrated in the most important reference books. Duncan Campbell made the decision to include illustrations of re-strike Dunham badges because he did not have access to period originals, and to expand the available examples in his reference. When I spoke to him about that specific matter in the 1990s, he told me he regretted his decision to not more precisely word the descriptions. Campbell had chosen to describe the re-struck badges thusly; "this is a badge of a type" or "this is a variant of" to avoid specifically labeling the badges as re-strikes from original dies. Additionally, all Military Aviator (wings with star) badges; "of a type manufactured by Dan Dunham" illustrated are best thought of as speculative as no original 1917-1918 Dan Dunham manufactured Military Aviator badges have surfaced to date. In the Campbell books, all Dan Dunham Reserve Military Aviator or Military Aviator badges illustrated are thus re-strikes from the original dies. The only period original Dan Dunham badge Campbell illustrated is the Aeronaut badge. Compounding the issue, later reference books continued using some of Campbell's illustrations and descriptions.

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All I can say is... MAGNIFICENT, just MAGNIFICENT. A treasure House of information for us all and U.S. military aviation artwork of the highest order and most enduring Beauty. A very hearty imputation of gratitude to you both.

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Could you specifically point out the die flaw?

 

Are there specific clues as to determine those made by Duncan Campbell? I have read that he intentionally did not finish the gaps in the feathers to distinguish his strikes from originals. Is that true?

 

Are the chances of poor normal saps coming across a Dunham wing about zero at the shows?

 

blind pew,

 

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Here is an illustration of one of the re-struck badges sold by Charles Snyder. It clearly illustrates the die flaw and incorrectly shaped US used by the Florida die maker when he re-struck these badges for Snyder. In some examples the flaw is less pronounced but careful examination of the area in the oval will reveal its existence in these badges.

 

Compare the above badge with this badge struck by Campbell, Flayderman, and the Florida die maker before the die broke:

 

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Observe that in this badge, there is no flaw. Campbell et. al. were able to strike a handful of these badges before the die broke. Additionally, note the US matches the Dunham dies (Post #4). When the die for the single wing broke, Campbell allowed the Florida die maker to keep the broken die but he retained the US die along with the rest. Later when the Florida die maker repaired the die, he no longer had access to the original Dunham US die. The badges struck for Charles Snyder all include the flaw and incorrect-shape US.

 

Dunham tended to embellish his badges with additional hand engraving and chasing--but not always. He frequently used a crescent shaped onglet to accentuate feathers and added additional "bright cuts" to improve sparkle. Most correct Dunham badges do not have straight cuts between feathers, however this is not a hard and fast rule as a few correct examples with cuts exist.

 

The best way to tell the Cambell/Flayderman badges is their construction. While struck from original dies, the backplates are differently shaped from Dunham's originals. Another key difference is the way they are put together. Dunham used two distinct methods to mount the silver pieces to the backplate; 1) gold-alloy bendable wires, and 2) screw-posts with "Nov 14" patented gold spinners. The Campbell badges are simply glued together.

 

How rare is a Dunham badge? Unscientifically, I have recorded 270 internet sales of WW1 USAS wing badges since 2004. Of those 270, there have been 9 sales of Dunham badges. In the same period I have recorded 60 internet sales of "Dallas" wings.

 

Best wishes!

 

Chris

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blind pew,

 

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Here is an illustration of one of the re-struck badges sold by Charles Snyder. It clearly illustrates the die flaw and incorrectly shaped US used by the Florida die maker when he re-struck these badges for Snyder. In some examples the flaw is less pronounced but careful examination of the area in the oval will reveal its existence in these badges.

 

Compare the above badge with this badge struck by Campbell, Flayderman, and the Florida die maker before the die broke:

 

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Observe that in this badge, there is no flaw. Campbell et. al. were able to strike a handful of these badges before the die broke. Additionally, note the US matches the Dunham dies (Post #4). When the die for the single wing broke, Campbell allowed the Florida die maker to keep the broken die but he retained the US die along with the rest. Later when the Florida die maker repaired the die, he no longer had access to the original Dunham US die. The badges struck for Charles Snyder all include the flaw and incorrect-shape US.

 

Dunham tended to embellish his badges with additional hand engraving and chasing--but not always. He frequently used a crescent shaped onglet to accentuate feathers and added additional "bright cuts" to improve sparkle. Most correct Dunham badges do not have straight cuts between feathers, however this is not a hard and fast rule as a few correct examples with cuts exist.

 

The best way to tell the Cambell/Flayderman badges is their construction. While struck from original dies, the backplates are differently shaped from Dunham's originals. Another key difference is the way they are put together. Dunham used two distinct methods to mount the silver pieces to the backplate; 1) gold-alloy bendable wires, and 2) screw-posts with "Nov 14" patented gold spinners. The Campbell badges are simply glued together.

 

How rare is a Dunham badge? Unscientifically, I have recorded 270 internet sales of WW1 USAS wing badges since 2004. Of those 270, there have been 9 sales of Dunham badges. In the same period I have recorded 60 internet sales of "Dallas" wings.

 

Best wishes!

 

Chris

 

wow- that was fantastic! Thanks very much for taking the time to explain all of that in such detail- that is certainly above and beyond the call.

 

Thanks again!

 

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Here are a few photos of another Dunham fake, with a fantasy hallmark. You can see the die flaw on the right side and the incorrect style of "US"

 

I am not sure if this is just a copy of a real Dunham hallmark or a fantasy production. I did look for a Dunham hallmark on line, but didn't find anything that I thought was real.

 

And thanks to Chris for adding so much more information on this thread. Hopefully people will learn and avoid the crud that is out there.

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Patrick,

 

Do you know what the symbol in front of the 14K is? Is that a standardized jewelers mark indicating 14K or something else? I am asking as it looks similar to the mark on another wing that Blind Pew posted a thread about which is also in front of a 14K mark.

 

Marty

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...it looks similar to the mark on another wing that Blind Pew posted a thread about which is also in front of a 14K mark.

 

I think Marty may be on to something. The similarity is uncanny.

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So you think the placement of the 14K and the font of the sterling is a good indicator of a fake, particularly since it is on the fake Dunham? Thanks for that info- I am learning, albeit slowly.

 

I know from German WW1 and WW2 items, we always spent a lot of time looking at the fonts of stamps to help determine authenticity and very, very small die flaws. I even went to the point of analyzing medals using time rented on a scanning electron microscope, which revealed elemental composition of metals, paints, and enamels.

 

The more detailed the examination, the easier it is to detect fakes.

 

I think Marty may be on to something. The similarity is uncanny.

 

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