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USMC Virtual Campaign Library: Haiti 1915 -1934


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teufelhunde.ret

American Poses With Dead Haitian Troops: Original caption: 10/11/1915-Haiti: Hatian revelutionists killed in engagement with U.S. Marines and rapid fire guns which was captured by marines. Image © Bettmann/CORBIS

 

 

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teufelhunde.ret

Sailors and Marines With Guns On Hatian Shore: Original caption: 1915-Haiti: Navy and Marines from the U.S.S. Wasington ashore for the capture of Port-Au-Prince. Image: © Bettmann/CORBIS

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teufelhunde.ret

Marines On Boat Headed For Haiti: Original caption: 1915-Philadelphia, PA: Marines boarding the U.S.C Conneticut at League Island Navy Yard, Philadelphia, July 31, when 500 of them sailed for Port-Au-Prince, Haiti, to assist in disarming the unruly natives. Image © Bettmann/CORBIS

 

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teufelhunde.ret

United Stated Occupation Of Haiti: Original caption: 10/7/1915-Port Au Prince, Haiti: American occupation of Haiti. Gates of Presidential palace where President Villbrum Guilluiame Sam was cut to pieces after seeking fefuge in the French legation next door and was dragged through the streets of Port Au Prince with mob brandishing pieces of flesh cut from his body. Image © Bettmann/CORBIS

 

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teufelhunde.ret

Portrait of Olympic Rifle Team: Original caption: This photo shows the Olympic Rifle Team that will represent the little republic of Haiti in the International and Olympic Rifle matches to be held at Chalons and Rheins from June 7th to June 29th. These riflemen are members of the Haitian Gendarmerie, trained and officered by the U.S. Marine Corps; in the front row center are shown Lt. Col. Douglas C. McDougal, U.S. Marine Corps, and Major H. L. Smith, also of the Marine Corps. They accompanied the riflemen to France when they sailed from Port Au Prince. Image © Bettmann/CORBIS

 

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teufelhunde.ret

Officers of Gendarmie D'Haiti: Original caption: 1919-Left to right: First Lieutenant Emory Wallace, the President, First Lieutenant I.M. Freeman, standing behind President, First Lieutenanat Miller. The officers of the Gendarmie D'Haiti here shown are noncommissioned officers of the U.S. Marine Corps. Image © Bettmann/CORBIS

 

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teufelhunde.ret

John H. Russel: Original caption: Filed 2/15/1923- Portrait of Brigadier General John H. Russell, U.S. Marine Corps High Commissioner to Haiti, who has returned to Washington for a short visit. Image © Bettmann/CORBIS

 

Filed_2.15.1923__Portrait_of_Brigadier_General_John_H._Russell__U.S._Marine_Corps_High_Commissioner_to_Haiti__who_has_returned_to_Washington_for_a_short_visit..jpg

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From the Richard collection. To the left is a small notebook the Marine used to record his activities in the field. To the right a book in which the Marine kept track of all general orders. Bound together with a bootlace, it could be added to as new orders were made available.

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A page from the small field notes book.....Note the entry on 29 Jan...he notes he shot one Caco and captured two rifles. The book also contains route of march information, names of the local Haitians living in the area he was operating, and a list of Caco's he was looking for. He also wrote over a number of entries in the book making it hard to read...i wonder if he did this on purpose given the books content.

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Nation building c. 1917. If you think Iraq was the first time our military was called upon to establish stability in a foreign country and then create the infrastructure and the institutions to under pin a new democratic state....then you need to look at Haiti were the Marines were doing this starting in 1915. This page from the Richard collection illustrates how the Marines supported the elections of 1917 by creating the procedures and providing security to ensure a free and fair election took place. The attached document also included procedures for who could vote, how to organize and operate polling stations as well as how to tally the votes.

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A Marine officer who wrote his memoirs in 1970 noted Marines in Nicaragua tried where ever possible to billet themselves in a Church....I'll assume that is because these buildings were the most solidly constructed in the towns were they were billeted.

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Following their initial occupation of Haiti, the Marines were tasked to create a new Haitian paramilitary force capable of maintaining order. The Marines created Gendarmerie D' Haiti initially officered by both Marine officers and NCO's. Edward Richard who by 1916 was a Marine Sgt, was transferred to the Guard to become a Lt the Gendarmeire. Here is a photo of one such officer.

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Not a mere general, but a king.

 

Any thread on Marines stationed in Haiti should include mention of Faustin Wirkus, a one-man detachment of US Marines on a large forbidding island not too far from Port-au-Prince. For the April 1958 cover of Stag magazine, artist James Bama gave the legendary White King of La Gonave a regal look with a crown of tropical bird feathers and a string of beads that decorated his campaign hat. Marine Sergeant Faustin Wirkus became a cult hero to three generations of American teenaged boys when his story first appeared in The Magic Isle, a book by William Seabrook. Beginning June 1920, King Faustin II ruled over the Haitian island of La Gonave. Crowned by Queen Ti Memenne in a series of voodoo ceremonies, this white Marine king ruled his natives for twelve years with a benevolent tolerance.

 

Semper Fidelis, Jim

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  • 1 year later...
teufelhunde.ret

For quite some time, there have been photographs posted on various threads of Marines in Haiti 1915-16 labeled "Raymond". Most believe these photos were taken by a Marine stationed in Haiti. I think he can be identified? Corporal Edward A. Raymond was sent to Haiti as a member of Fifth Company, First Regiment, First Brigade. in early 1915 and spent a number of months working at Brigade Headquarters engaged in "map work". With access to - or owning his own camera he took quite a number of photo's in an alpha & bravo number series, a couple attached. Anyone else have others to include?

 

Raymond stayed in Haiti thru WW1 and was discharged in 1920. I have not been able to find any other information on him after that date.

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I searched for Raymond also. Nada...

 

but on another note.

 

Not much is written on the USMC in Haiti during the 1915-1934 timeframe. Research for me has been a royal pain in the neck. I think there’s more pictures and information on this tread in the forum then anyplace else on the net. There are books out there that provide some information, but limited details. Bit’s and pieces mostly.

 

By reading Garde D’Haiti 1915-1934 by McCrocklin I’ve learned that the 11th company was posted at Ouanaminithe near the Dominican Republic Boarder. The 11th company was the unit my Granddad was attached to in 1916. If you have an interest in the USMC in Haiti, I would suggest this book be a part of your library.

 

 

Garde D’Haiti 1915 - 1934

U.S. Naval Institute

Twenty Years of Organization and Training by the United States Marine Corps

Compiled by James H. McCrocklin

Copyright 1956

US Naval Institute Annapolis, Maryland

Library of Congress Catalogue No. 56-12610

Forward by Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr.

General, USMC

Commandant of the Marine Corps

 

I see 3 on Amazon $30, $63 & $100 as of today, Saturday 3/13/10.

 

Below is a map of Haiti from the inside cover of the above book. I’ve hope it is sized well enough to read the names of the locations on it. I’ve noted a few locations by adding text boxes to the picture. These are names of places that appear on many of the pictures posted in this thread. Seeing where they are helped me to understand the distance traveled by the Marines on their patrols, etc. If you’ve never seen them on a map before it might help you also.

 

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Jon B.

Newaygo MI

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teufelhunde.ret

Hey Jon, that is a superb reference and have read it - need to again! Found a source for more of Corporal Raymonds photo's and will post as I can download. s/f Darrell

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