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Ranger-1972

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  1. The insignia on the cap and collar appear to be that of the 4th Regiment of Field Artillery (Mountain), organized 13 June 1904 at Vancouver Barracks, Washington, under the command of COL Alexander B. Dyer, Jr. It consisted of a Headquarters and six firing batteries. A Battery (formed from the former 26th Battery); B Battery (formed from the former 28th Battery); C Battery (formed from the former 23rd Battery); D Battery (formed from the former 27th Battery); E Battery (organized June 1907); and F Battery (organized June 1907). The 4th Field Artillery served during the Mexican Punitive Expedition in 1916, but did not deploy to France during WWI.
  2. This appears to be the Field Artillery insignia adopted in 1904 (a caisson wheel on a disc, superimposed on the crossed cannon), rather than the Coast Artillery insignia (an artillery shell on a disc, superimposed on the crossed cannon). It would be very unusual for a Coast Artillery officer below the rank of Major to be mounted, whereas every Field Artillery officer would ride a horse.
  3. Thanks - that makes sense. WRT ribbons, I figured the Occupation ribbon (First Army HQ was initially slated to go from Europe to the Pacific to participate in Operation Downfall in 1946, but after 11 straight months in combat, many individuals transferred to Third Army or Ninth Army, rather than opt to fight another foe), the WWII Victory Medal ribbon, the American Theater ribbon, and the European Theater ribbon (with four stars - Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, and Central Europe). He might have earned a Bronze Star in Europe, especially if he was in one of the FA Groups under First Army Artillery. Likewise, he could have served in Korea -- but it seems unlikely he would wear a First Army patch on the right sleeve if he had been in combat in Korea. This officer could be Regular Army or AUS -- it wasn't until 1957 that Eisenhower RIFed all the AUS officers on active duty, realizing that in 1958 they would reach 18 years of Federal service (since Roosevelt's call up of the National Guard in 1940) and be locked in for retirement. If he had been a captain in WWII, chances are he was at least a major by 1953. If he had been a major in WWII, chances are he was a lieutenant colonel by 1953. If a company-grade officer, he probably was awarded an Army Commendation Medal at some time between when it was approved (Dec 1945) and 1953. The Meritorious Service Medal was not approved until 1968. If a field-grade officer, he may have been awarded a Legion of Merit (that was the only award above the ARCOM until 1968). Thanks again.
  4. In my original post, I indicated it was a M1942 jacket, which is not technically correct. The male officer's winter service uniform in 1941 consisted of a 4 button, 4 pocket coat of finer wool fabric in olive drab shade No. 51 ("dark-shade" i.e. a very dark forest green with brownish hue), nicknamed "greens". The coat was worn with a russet brown leather Sam Brown belt until 1942 when the leather belt was replaced by a cloth belt of matching fabric to the coat. Officers could wear trousers matching the color and fabric of the coat, or optionally they were allowed taupe colored, trousers, officially called "drab shade 54", of the same material as the coat, nicknamed "pinks", leading to the nickname "pinks and greens" for the iconic combination. Since 1939, the coats for officers and enlisted men had included a pair of pleats by each shoulder that gave extended freedom of movement to the wearer. It was suggested by the Office of the Quartermaster General (OQMG) that the bi-swing back could be eliminated to improve the appearance of the garment and to decrease the cost of manufacture and to save on wool. In June 1942 the "Revised Service Coat" was adopted. It no longer had the bi-swing back and the lower pockets became a simplified interior type with an exterior flap. This coat has the bi-swing pleats at the shoulders, the cloth belt, and the lower interior pockets with an exterior flap. The uniform set came with a matching pair of dark trousers (not the 'pinks'). So it seems to date from 1942.
  5. I acquired a M1942 officer's uniform (with the vented pleats at the back) worn by a field artillery officer who served with First Army in WWII. He obviously continued to wear the same uniform long after the war, because his overseas bars are on the right sleeve (which did not happen until 1953). The uniform has a First Army insignia on the right sleeve, and a Fourth Army insignia on the left sleeve. The right sleeve also has four overseas bars and a Meritorious Service Unit Insignia (wreath) - probably the one awarded to Fourth Army, since it did not serve in combat during WWII. First Army Artillery was led by BG Charles E. Hart, who wrote an article in Military Review in September 1945. The First Army Artillery consisted of the First Army Artillery Section (Hart plus 3 colonels, 2 lieutenant colonels, 5 majors, 4 captains, 2 lieutenants, 17 warrant officers, 40 enlisted men), the 32nd Field Artillery Brigade with two subordinate Field Artillery Groups (3rd FA Group and 11th FA Group), each with two FA battalions of 240mm howitzers (551st FA Bn, 552nd FA Bn, 742nd FA Bn & ??), and two additional separate FA battalions of 8" guns (153rd FA Bn and 268th FA Bn). These provided reinforcing fires to the Field Artillery Groups that were habitually associated with the corps of the First Army. The Corps-level Field Artillery Groups were equipped with 155mm howitzer battalions, 155mm gun battalions, 8" howitzer battalions, 4.5" gun battalions, and provided general support to the division artilleries. Presumably, officers who had served in Field Artillery Groups at the corps level would wear the corps' patch on their right sleeve, rather than the First Army patch. Unfortunately, the uniform only has the officer's initials -- not his full name -- so I cannot determine in which unit he served. In any case, I've found it very difficult to find the names of officers who served in the First Army Artillery Section (at HQ), the 32nd FA Brigade, the 3rd or 11th FA Groups, or the individual heavy artillery battalions. I'm trying to build the uniform to what it would have looked like in 1953. The surface-to-air missile was not adopted for wear by Field Artillery officers until 1958, so in 1953 this officer would still be wearing just the crossed cannon insignia on the lapels of his jacket. Officers who had served at the division artillery level frequently wore the regimental number above their crossed cannon. Does anyone know if that practice was also followed by officers who had served at the Army artillery level (e.g., crossed cannon with the numbers 32 above, for 32nd FA Bde -- or was that reserved for officers who had served in the 32nd FA Bn in North Africa & Europe)? Or a number 3 or 11 above, with the letters GP beneath, for the 3rd FA Group or 11th FA Group? Or would they have just worn the plain crossed cannon collar insignia? Thanks.
  6. What type of sword belt / cross-body sling was worn under the M1902 white, high-collar jacket when the officer was 'under arms'? I've got photos of officer wearing the white, high-collar jacket with trousers and with white riding breeches and boots -- all the while wearing a M1902 saber. The saber straps hang from an opening to the left side of the jacket. But there is no visible dark 'stripe' or 'bulge' around the officer's waist under the white jacket -- and one would think that wearing either the dress belt or the service belt & buckle would 'show' under the coat. Most officers in the interwar period (between the SAW and WWI) were graduates of USMA, VMI, Citadel, etc. As cadets, they had all worn a white canvas duck strap that went over the right shoulder, across the body, and down to a point at the left hip, just below the belt. The cadet saber's scabbard was hooked through a throg at the bottom (either leather or cloth). I've seen these advertised in the 1917 'military edition' of the Sears, Roebuck catalog. I know officers wore their normal sword belt under their blue M1902 dress coat (and wore the dress sword belt around the outside of the waist of their M1902 full-dress coat). Anyone know if Army officers wore those white duck straps under their M1902 white uniforms, and hooked the black saber straps onto the throg at the bottom? Or did they just wear the black belt under their white uniforms?
  7. On 26 July 1941, President Roosevelt issued a Presidential Order (6 Fed. Reg. 3825) calling "all the organized military forces of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines" into the service of the U.S. armed forces. That same order promised U.S. citizenship and veteran's benefits to Filipinos who enlisted in the U.S. Army. About 250,000 Filipinos joined the ranks. Those living in the States were sworn in as citizens as soon as they enlisted. Those who joined in the Philippines were promised their citizenship at war's end. However, in 1946, President Truman signed the Rescission Act (Public Law 70-301), abrogating FDR's promise, declaring those who had joined the U.S. Army while living in the Philippines were not eligible for VA benefits. This was not corrected until 1990. More than 1,000,000 Filipinos died during WWII -- many at the hands of the Japanese (during their conquest and occupation of the islands in 1941-44) and many at the hands of the Americans (during the reconquest of the islands in 1944-45). In 1940, Manila was the sixth largest American city (the Philippine Islands, like the Hawaiian Islands, Alaska, the Panama Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, Guam, Wake and Midway were all U.S. territories at that time). The battle to capture Manila in Feb-Mar 1945 resulted in that city becoming the most heavily damaged 'allied' capital of the war (worse by far than London, Paris, Moscow, The Hague, or Brussels). During that battle, the U.S. lost 1,000+ KIA and 5,500+ WIA; the Japanese lost 16,000+ KIA; and there were an estimated 100,000+ Filipino civilians killed. Many of those died due to Japanese atrocities during the battle, but many others were killed by U.S. artillery fire and bombing raids. My dad participated in the campaigns on Leyte and Luzon, and was in Manila in 1945 preparing for the invasion of Japan when the war ended. His photos of Manila at that time are staggering. He said that he never saw a Filipino in Manila who smiled at an American. If Demetrio Bersalona (who was living in Los Angeles in 1940) enlisted in the Army while in the U.S. in 1941-42, then he may well have become a U.S. citizen at that time.
  8. What's interesting about this photo is that MG Scott is wearing the M1902 full-dress uniform for mounted officers, M1902 officer's saber, and the M1912 hat (with the wider crown), but he is wearing the M1872 version of a general officer's sword belt -- with the long strap from the center of the back of the belt and a short strap on the left side. Along with the M1902 uniform & saber was the M1902 sword belt -- which had a long & a short strap (fastened side by side) -- worn on the left hip. As a general officer, Scott was able to design his own uniform. First time I've seen the M1872 belt worn with a M1902 uniform. Also, this is a great closeup of the full-dress sword knot for general officers -- which is distinctly different from the sword knot for all other officers. Seems he has the field version of the saddle cloth, rather than the dress version -- even though he is wearing his full-dress uniform. The stars and the General Staff chevrac appear to be in a subdued finish, rather than bright silver for the stars and colored enamel for the GS insignia (as shown in the example at the top of this post). I would guess that this photo was taken on Ft Myer, VA, near Quarters #1 (General Leonard Wood was the first Army Chief of Staff to live there, beginning in 1910. Every Army Chief of Staff since then has lived there.) MG Scott lived there from 1914-1917. Interestingly, MG Scott personally negotiated the end of the Bluff War in Utah (March 1915), one of the last fights with native Americans involving the US Army.
  9. The Hathi Trust webpage is a great place to look for U.S. Army uniform regulations https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006539002 Here is a .pdf of the Regulations for the Uniforms of the U.S. Army, 1917 https://history.army.mil/html/bookshelves/resmat/wwi/historical_resources/default/sec04/PDF/regulationsforun1917uniform.pdf There was no set of U.S. Army Uniform Regulations published in 1919. Bill Emerson lists the following for pre-WWI, WWI, post-WWI: 1911: Regulations for the Uniform of the United States Army, 26 Dec 1911. 1912 Specification for the Uniforms of the United States Army, 25 Jan 1912. 1913: Specification for the Uniforms of the United States Army, February 15, 1913. 1914: Regulations for the Uniform of the United States Army (Revised Edition), July 22, 1914. 1917: Special Regulations Number 41, Regulations for the Uniform of the United States Army, August 15, 1917; Special Regulations Number 42, Specifications for the Uniform of the United States, August 15, 1917. 1921: Army Regulations (AR) 600-35, 14 Oct 1921, Prescribed Service Uniform; AR 600-40, Sept 1921, Wearing of Service Uniform. 1924: AR 600-35, 25 Nov 1924, Prescribed Service Uniform. 1926: AR 600-35, 31 Dec 1926, Prescribed Service Uniform; AR 600-40, 31 Dec 1926, Wearing of Service Uniform.
  10. They are the correct trousers for wear with the high collar M1902 dress tunic and with the double-breasted M1902 full-dress coat. General officers wore dark blue trousers. Dismounted officers of the infantry, artillery, cavalry and engineers wore sky blue trousers; mounted officers wore sky blue breeches. The Regulations and Notes for the Uniform of the Army of the United States, 1902 prescribed as the dress uniform for officers a single-breasted sack coat of dark blue cloth or serge, with standing collar fastened with two hooks and eyes; coat to close with flap containing suitable concealed fastenings; slit not extending 3 inches for hooking up the saber; the skirt to extend from one-third to two-thirds the distance from the point of the hip to the bend of the knee, according to the height of the wearer; cut to fit the figure easily; a vertical opening at each side of the hip, according to pattern. The coat to be trimmed with lustrous flat black mohair braid 1 ¼ inches wide, as follows: Edged all around the bottom, the front edges, the collar, and for six inches upward from the bottom along both side openings of the skirt. Shoulder straps … and collar ornaments … will be worn with this garment. This was nearly identical to the 1895 service coat, except for the fact that the collar was fastened top & bottom in the center. Full-dress and dress trousers for officers of cavalry, artillery, infantry and engineers were identical: of sky-blue cloth with stripes 1 ½ inches wide, welted at the edges; the color of the stripes to be that of the facings of the respective corps or arms. Officers of the Corps of Engineers not attached to the engineer battalions were to wear dark-blue cloth trousers with the addition of a stripe of scarlet cloth 1 ½ inches in width with a piping of white cloth 1/8 inch in width. For officers of cavalry, artillery, infantry and engineers when mounted, full-dress and dress breeches of the same material and with the same colored stripes as their full-dress trousers were worn. Black shoes (or boots) were worn with the full-dress and dress uniform. The M1902 dress and full-dress uniforms were discontinued from 1917-1929, then worn again from 1929-1936.
  11. HQ 34th Artillery Brigade: 64th CA Regt (British 8"), 70th CA Regt (US-assembled British 8"), 71st CA Regt (British 8") - not in combat
  12. Another possibility: Charles Walter Machemehl (1922-2005), Texas A&M class of '44, was transferred to the Army OCS program in 1943 and commissioned in the Army that year. He served with the 82nd Airborne Division as a forward observer, participating in the Battle of the Bulge, the Ruhr Pocket, and the Battle of the Hurtgen Forest - and was in the unit that linked up with the Russian Army at the Elbe River in 1945. He received two Bronze Stars and a Silver Star. He later served in the 17th Airborne Division and ended the war as a Captain serving as the aide to General Matthew B. Ridgeway, 1st Allied Airborne Army. His son is my neighbor. See his obituary: https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/houstonchronicle/obituary.aspx?n=charles-walter-machemehl&pid=3538950
  13. Ref the E / 59th Artillery insignia, wonder if this is a post-WWI uniform from the 1920s. The 59th Coast Artillery Regiment was not demobilized after WWI - it went first to California, then to Washington, then to the Philippines. In about 1921, certain uniform items that had been authorized in France during WWI -- but forbidden for wear in the US -- were finally allowed to be worn. These included the Sam Browne belt for officers, and the divisional shoulder insignia. It might be that this individual was serving with the 59th Coast Artillery Regiment in the Philippines in 1921, and sewed on his WWI vintage 28th Division shoulder patch. Only problem with this scenario is that by 1921, the enlisted collar disc for the CAC included the shell within the lozenge at the intersection of the crossed cannon, and the lettered CAC companies (from WWI) were re-designated as numbered CAC companies (e.g., E battery, 59th CA Regt became the 252nd Company, 59th CA Regiment -- and it was inactive). From: https://cdsg.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/FORTS/CACunits/CACreg1.pdf The 59th Arty sailed from Brest, arriving New York 1-24-19, and moved to Cp. Upton, where NG and NA men were discharged 1-30-19. Initially 59th Arty was slated for the east coast with the 32nd Bde, but 59th was substituted for 56th Arty and transferred to 31st Bde at San Francisco. Btry C was inactivated prior to the transfer, its personnel reassigned to 2nd Co, CD SNY. The 59th Arty numbered only a few hundred RA officers and men when it arrived at Ft. Winfield Scott. It was at Ft. Winfield Scott from the latter part of February until 10-2-19, when 31st Bde was transferred to Cp. Lewis, WA. The 31st Bde and the 57th Arty Regt were demobilized in the summer of 1921, the personnel of the 57th were transferred to the brigade’s two remaining regiments, the 55th and the 59th Arty, enabling the 59th to bring HHB and Btrys A & B up to nominal peacetime strengths. The 59th was transferred to Ft. Mills on Corregidor Island, departing Ft. Lewis 7-13-21. On 8-1-21, while enroute to the Philippine Islands, 1st, 2nd & 3rd Bn HHD&CTs were organized 8-1-21 aboard the USAT Sherman from personnel of the regimental HHB. On 6-30-22, HHB, 59th Arty was additionally designated 98th Co, CAC; HHD 1st Bn, 248th Co, CAC; HHD 2nd Bn, 249th Co, CAC; HHD 3rd Bn, 250th Co, CAC. Btrys A, B, C, D, E, & F were additionally designated 176th, 252nd, 3rd, 254th, 255th, & 252nd Cos, CAC, with Btrys C through F inactive. The 59th Arty arrived at Manila 8-13-21 and was transported to Ft. Mills, Corregidor, that same date.
  14. WRT the E / 59th Artillery uniform, there was a 59th Field Artillery Brigade assigned to the 34th Division. The 28th Division had the 53rd Field Artillery Brigade (107th, 108th, 109th FA Regiments, 103rd Trench Mortar Battery, 103rd Ammunition Train). The collar discs are of the 1918 design for a Field Artillery unit (not CAC) - with the U.S. and regimental number on one disc, and crossed cannon (centered on the disc) with the battery letter beneath on the other disc. Prior to 1918, enlisted field artillerymen wore the regimental number in the intersection above the crossed cannon and the battery letter in the intersection below the crossed cannon, except for staff NCOs who wore no battery letter. The problem with this is that there was no 59th Field Artillery Regiment in the Army during WWI or immediately afterwards. By 1919, there were 30 field artillery regiments in the Regular Army (1-22 and 76-83), 50 field artillery regiments in the National Guard divisions (101-151), and 70 field artillery regiments in the National Army divisions (23-40, 75, 84, and 301-351). There was a 59th Coast Artillery Regiment, but the CAC collar insignia differed from the FA collar insignia, in that the crossed cannon were not centered on the disc. Interestingly, the 59th Coast Artillery Regiment (equipped with the 155mm GPF or the British 8" howitzer, depending on the source you read) supported the 28th Division in the Argonne in late September and October 1918, actually serving as 'divisional artillery.' http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/coast59.htm
  15. The artist was Joseph Christian (J. C.) Leyendecker (in his time, as famous as Norman Rockwell). This illustration was a Saturday Evening Post cover on 31 May 1919. See: https://i.pinimg.com/originals/6c/b1/50/6cb15023f8900d1d6863ee5eff58ee12.jpg And: http://poulwebb.blogspot.com/2015/04/j-c-leyendecker-part-4.html Though born in Germany, he was one of the preeminent artists depicting the US military during WWI. He was incredibly detailed (and pretty accurate) in depicting uniforms, though clearly in an idealized fashion.
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