XIV Corps / Fourteenth Corps / 14th Corps / XIV Army Corps
World War II
April 1, 1968
World War II
The history of XIV Army Corps in World War II dates from December, 1942. Under Lieutenant General (then Maj. Gen.) Alexander M. Patch, the XIV Army Corps directed the Americal and 25th (Tropic lightning) Army Infantry Division, the 2nd Marine Division, and the 147th Separate Infantry Regiment in the final drive which expelled the Japanese from Guadalcanal early in February, 1943. From air fields here guarded by the XIV Army Corps, Allied aircraft began the neutralization of the enemy's vital Munda airfields on New Georgia.
Lieutenant General, (then Maj. Gen.) O.W. Griswold succeeded General Patch as XIV Corps commander April 26, 1943. In a lightning campaign which began June 30, 1943 with the invasion of Rendova Islands, General Griswold's forces which included the 43rd (New England) and the 37th (Buckeye) Infantry Divisions with elements of the 25th Division, seized New Georgia and the important Munda airfield on August 6th. Mopping up of the adjacent islands was completed and the New Georgia campaign ended October 6, 1943. American and New Zealand aircraft operating from the Munda field began the neutralization of Kahili and other enemy airfield in Bougainville.
In one of the most decisive defeats in the history of the Japanese military, the XIV Corps in Bougainville in March, 1944 slew more than 9,000 Japanese in 18 days of violent fighting. Virtually annihilated was a once fine 17th Imperial Japanese Army. Part of this army was the Sixth Imperial Infantry Division, considered Japan's best division in the early Chinese campaigns. It played a major part in the Rape of the Chinese city of Nanking in 1937.
General Griswold's forces racked up an impressive ratio of more than 30 Japanese slain for each American killed in this Second Battle of Bougainville. The 37th and Americal Divisions and two battalions of the Fiji military forces were principal combat units of the XIV Corps for this operation. Elements of the 93rd (Negro) Infantry Division arrived after the peak of the battle and assisted in harassing retreating Japanese troops. The three airfields in the Bougainville perimeter were used as bases for allied aircraft which reduced the once mighty Japanese air and naval base of Rabaul, New Britain, to an impotent outpost of the enemy's island empire. The first raid of Truk, a large Japanese air and naval base in the Central Pacific, was staged through Bougainville by Liberators of the 13th Army Air Force.
From the Solomon's campaigns the XIV Army Corps gained the nickname, Kings of the Solomons."
Liberators of Manila
The XIV Army Corps with its initial divisions, the 37th and the 40th (Sunshine) Infantry Division, landed on the shores of Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippines, S-Day which was January 9, 1945. The landing was made without ground opposition as the Japanese garrison completed surprised, fled three days before S-Day at the start of an intensive naval and aerial bombardment.
Meeting spasmodic resistance the corps droves rapidly south towards Manila, capturing successively Binmaley, San Carlos, Malasiqui and Tarlac. At Bamban the enemy was strongly entrenched in the 40th's sector in the foothills of the Zambales Mountains. Attacking abreast the 37th and 40th sufficiently reduced the resistance to allow the 37th to continue on to Manila. The 40th was left to contain and exterminate the stubbornly resisting Japanese.
The 1st Cavalry Division from Guimba began a drive to Manila overrunning the towns of Cabanatuan, Santa Rosa and Garapan, and by February 1, 1945, the 37th and the 1st Cavalry were poised north of Manila ready for the battle for the Philippines' capital city.
Elements of the 11th Airborne Division made a paratroop, amphibious invasion of Nasugbu on the west coast of Batangas Province, 32 miles southwest of the former American naval base of Cavite, February 2. This move was to seal off the Japanese forces south of Manila. The 11th, passing to XIV Corps control, began a push toward a junction with columns of the 27th and 1st Cavalry.
February 3 the 1st Cavalry entered Manila liberating 3,700 American internees at Santo Tomas and the next day soldiers of the 37th marched into Bilibid Prison freeing 800 American civilians and soldiers captured on Bataan and Corregidor in 1941.
Resistance was quickly reduced north of the Pasig River but the Japanese fought ferociously in Southern Manila. Forces of the 37th, 1st Cavalry and 11th Airborne joined up in Manila February 13. Meanwhile the 6th (Red Star) Infantry Division joined XIV Corps February 17 and attacked well fortified enemy forces in the Shimbu Line east of Manila. In an amphibious, air, para-troop, ground assault, elements of the 11th Airborne Division aided by elements of XIV Corps Special Troops, freed 2,100 American internees from Los Banos Prison Camp, February 23.
Main enemy resistance collapsed with the taking of the ancient walled city of Intramuros on February 24 by the 37th Division. Mopping up was completed in three public building which had been fortified by the Japanese and in Manila Bay where Japanese has set up defenses in the hulks of sunken ships.
The cleanup of Southern Luzon with the 1st Cavalry and the 11th Airborne comprising major corps units was begun March 15, and by May 20 the area was declared free of Japanese organized resistance. Then the corps with the 6th, 32nd (Red Arrow), 37th and 38th (Cyclone) Division began the cleanup of Northern Luzon, July 1.
Post-World War II
Following World War II, the XIII Corps was reactivated as part of the Army reserve.
It remained as such until it was inactivated again in April 1, 1968.
Divisional history from:
Edited by Schottzie, 23 September 2007 - 12:02 PM.