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Army Air Defense Arty


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#1 easterneagle87

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Posted 11 June 2019 - 02:11 PM

Am a bit of a fan of Army missiles and the Cold War era they were developed. But I have some questions. In a recent forum discussion (which NOW I can't find!, ugh!), there was discussion over the branch.

 

Technology was the key to deploying missiles in the 1950's - 1960's. Nike's, Corporal's, Sergeant's, etc were all developed before the branch became official.   

 

Clearly ADA was established as a "branch" in 1968, but.. how early was the insignia - crossed cannons with an erect missile/rocket in the center used? It had to have started in the 1950's.

 

I just saw a picture on ebay and they have it dated as 1962.  Who thought to put a missile on the insignia? When developed as a symbol?   

 

Looking forward to forum input.

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#2 rufus_firefly

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Posted 11 June 2019 - 02:17 PM

I believe the crossed cannons with a missile was the branch insignia for artillery until the mid to late 60’s. I had a ROTC instructor who wore them in 1967. Don’t know exactly when the switch was made.

#3 atb

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Posted 11 June 2019 - 05:53 PM

Check check these books, Emerson's Encyclopedia of US Army Insignia and Uniforms, and Laftambois' volume on Artillery, Cavalry, and Infantry Insignia. Either will answer your question.

#4 patches

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Posted 29 June 2019 - 05:38 PM

Despite any local unit application of ADA on vehicle bumpers or unit stationary/paper work of some units that fired air defense weaponry, there was no specific or separate Air Defense Branch, in it units that did use AD weapons, and those that used tube and ground to ground missiles where all under the new Artillery Branch and had as their branch insignia this crossed cannons with missile.

 

Back then all Artillery Battalions, 1957-68, no matter what weaponry they used, used the Crossed Cannons with Upright Missile as collar insignia and on their guidons.

post-34986-0-74489200-1516734010.jpg

As an example, the 1st Battalion 30th Artillery (155mm Howitzer,Towed) during Operation Pegasus April 1968, the 1st Bn 30th Arty was a IFFV Artillery unit, and attached to the 1st Cavalry Division during this operation, the relief of Khe Sahn.



#5 patches

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Posted 29 June 2019 - 05:38 PM

And to add this, an official MEMO from a late 1968 25th Inf Div's newspaper I just now found, that explains the change in 1957 when the big super branch was created, and now in 1968 when the two specific weaponry battalions where to be spit into separate and distinct branches.

 

Arty Fields Get Distinct Insignias

   Separate insignia have been approved for the U.S. Army's two artillery branches.
   Officers in the Field Artillery Branch and enlisted personnel assigned to field artillery organizations will be authorized to wear an insignia consisting of two crossed field guns.
   This insignia was used by the Field Artillery Branch before January 2, 1957.
   Officers in the Air Defense Artillery Branch and enlisted personnel assigned to air defense artillery organizations will continue to wear the present Artillery Branch insignia, which consists of two crossed field guns and a missile.
   The names of artillery officers transferred to the new Air Defense Artillery Branch will appear on a special order scheduled for publication in November with an effective date of December 1, 1968.
   New insignia will be authorized for wear on effective date of the order.



#6 patches

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Posted 29 June 2019 - 05:41 PM

I know it can be confusing, there were indeed Artillery units that did operate and man Air Defense weapons, but they were all lumped in with all Artillery units under the 1957 Combat Arms Regimental System or CARS, this would include Tube Artillery, both Towed and Self Propelled ( i.e. Armored) the only way one would be able to tell what type it was, was be the unit description or designator in parentheses at the end of the unit title. Plus soldiers who were selected (draftees) or volunteered (enlistees) for any one of those different types artillery would take their AIT at two different posts. The guys for Artillery that were to be Field Arty i.e. tube, and Ground to Ground Missile like the Sergeant Missile etc etc,  went to Fort Sill for AIT, guys for Air Defense weapons, that's Ground to Air Missile, and Automatic Weapons, like the Quad 50 Caliber Machine Guns etc etc, went to Bliss for AIT.

Here are but five examples of Ground Arty for those days.

1st Battalion 14th Artillery (105mm Howitzer, Towed)

3th Battalion 16th Artillery (155mm Howitzer, Towed)

1st Battalion 27th Artillery (155mm Howitzer, Self Propelled)

4th Battalion 39th Artillery (8" Howitzer, Self Propelled)

1st Battalion 42nd Artillery (Honest John)

 

And of Air Arty.

 

1st Battalion 44th Artillery (Automatic Weapon, Self Propelled) the unit that operated those M44 Dusters.

 

2nd Battalion 44th Artillery (Pershing)

 

6th Battalion 56th Artillery (Hawk)

 

1st Battalion 65th Artillery (Nike Hercules)

During the 60s the Army's Artillery operated numerous Air Defense Battalions, but as you see, despite any local unit application of ADA on vehicle bumpers or unit stationary/paper work of some units that fired air defense weaponry, they were not called as we have seen Air Defense Artillery, the weapons were Missiles, to include Hawk missiles etc, the other type were called Automatic Weapons, to include Vulcan, Chaparral (first unit activated in May 1969, which by that time the Branch was already Split in to FA and ADA), Duster, and the old Quad .50 Caliber Machine Guns, also Searchlight units.

 

To reiterate. While the Artillery Branch was split in two in late 1968, the Artillery Battalions continued to be known under their 1957 CARS titles, it was in I think 1971 or 1972 ( not sure of the year there) that the Artillery units that operated Air Defense Weapons were finally designated Air Defense Artillery, as in the ADA, in example the unit that was a part of the 1st Cav Div when I was in it in 1980-81, the 1st Battalion 68th Air Defense Artillery,

To add one final fine point it would seem that those units under CARS, that operated Air Defense Artillery weapons tended, but not always, to be ones associated with the old Coast Artillery/ Anti Aircraft Artillery, here after 1957 they just were no longer officially called by those old titles.

 



#7 patches

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Posted 29 June 2019 - 05:47 PM

The Shoulder Patches worn starting in 1957 are equally confusing to those not familiar with this muddle.

 

This is the original patch for the Field Artillery School it was based at Fort Sill.

post-34986-0-40356000-1380902540.jpg

 

 

It was superseded in 1957 by this patch, called the Artillery and Missle School, it was based at Fort Sill, the old patch then became obsolete.

post-34986-0-86112500-1380902524.jpg

 

 

At the same exact time a new patch was adopted for the new School titled the Antiaircraft Artillery and Guided Missile School, soon to called a Center rather than a School located at Fort Bliss Texas.

post-34986-0-71892400-1380902532.jpg

 

 

Then in 1968, the two types of Artillery were split in to two distinct branches, Air Defense Artillery, and Field Artillery, the Branch Insignia of the Crossed Cannons with Missile superimposed on it was retained by the Air Defense Artillery, the Field Artillery resumed it's wear of the traditional Crossed Cannons.

 

The Artillery and Missile School patch was then circa 1969 superseded by this patch a redesign of the old original Field Artillery School patch.The Anti Aircraft Artillery and Guided Missile Center retained is patch, with the unit now redesignated as  Air Defense Center and Fort Bliss.

 

post-34986-0-68636300-1380902586.jpg



#8 easterneagle87

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Posted 01 July 2019 - 11:28 AM

A "Super Branch" , very interesting and VERY informative. Thanks for the info!  




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